So, we’ve reached the end of our series on what ABA looks like in the general education setting and I think we may have saved the best for last. As teachers (or parents or therapists or adults interacting with kids in any capacity), what do we most wish for our students? For many of us it is independence and not being needed. Don’t get me wrong, we all want (or maybe need) to be needed, but there are few things more fulfilling—at least for me—than teaching someone something so well that they don’t need us to continue doing it. Achieving this level of independence is the topic of our final entry in this series.
Within the classroom setting, independence includes completing assignments, organizing materials, being able to walk the halls & return to class, being on task, knowing when to be social & when not to, having supplies prepared, etc. But, if we’re all being honest, how many of us can actually say every one of our students demonstrates these behaviors all the time (or even 50% of the time)? More often than not, we see plenty of students “ignoring” instructions, coming to class unprepared, refusing to compete activities, and many other things that are not illustrations of independence in the classroom. But most of the time, the strategy used to address these struggles is repeating the instructions given.
While it might seem like that is effective—because after the 5th time, the student completes the task—it isn’t usually the most effective long term solution to the problem of noncompliance and dependence on staff. Why not, you ask? There are four main reasons this typically is not the best strategy: 1) it may teach students they don’t have to listen until the 9th repetition of the instruction, 2) they may not have the skills to be successful, 3) they may forget the instruction if too much is presented at once, and 4) too many nonsuccesses makes trying the next time difficult or discouraging. Think about what happens when you give an instruction multiple times…it often goes (and sounds if you read bold and capitals with emphasis) like this:
“Johnny, put your homework in the ‘to grade’ box.” (Johnny does nothing). “Johnny, I told you to put your homework in the ‘to grade’ box.” (Johnny does nothing). “Johnny, are you listening? Put your homework in the ‘to grade’ box.” (Johnny does nothing). “Johnny, I already told you 3 times, put your HOMEWORK in the ‘TO GRADE’ BOX!”
And, the really crazy thing, is that sometimes we get through all of those instructions and Johnny has still not put his homework in the “to grade” box. This is definitely not what we want for our students or for ourselves as teachers. We (the adults) often begin to feel exasperated with students through these interactions and the students likely feel as though we don’t like them because these interactions are so negative and tension-filled. I’m sure we ALL want to avoid these types of interactions with our students…and there are ways we can!
So the question, then, is, “What can I do differently?” The really short answer is to use a different prompting strategy. The slightly less short answer is to use either graduated guidance or errorless teaching, both of which are technical terms for how you might prompt students to complete tasks you present when you present them. Graduated guidance is when you increase your assistance following noncompliance or errors. Errorless teaching is the opposite; you begin with a lot of assistance and fade it out as the students become familiar and successful. The illustration below is a simple example of what each of these strategies might look like.
But I’m guessing there are many people thinking, “What does she even mean by, ‘Use a “prompting strategy”?’” Well, that’s also kind of a technical way of saying, “Change your response to the students based on how they respond to your instructions/assistance.” In the example with Johnny above, the teacher kept doing the same thing each time Johnny failed to put his homework in the box. By planning ahead of time to use one of the prompting strategies I described, we would have seen the teacher’s behavior change with each refusal or success. Let’s look at graduated guidance:
“Johnny, put your homework in the ‘to grade’ box.” (Johnny does nothing). The teacher walks closer to Johnny and repeats the instruction, “Johnny, put your homework in the ‘to grade’ box.” (Johnny does nothing). The teacher taps Johnny on the shoulder, gets eye contact, points at the ‘to grade’ box and says, “Johnny, put your homework in the ‘to grade’ box.” (Johnny puts his homework in the box).
In this example, Johnny still didn’t comply the first time, but the teacher increased the level of assistance with the task each time she stated the instruction. Because there was a planned shift in responses from the teacher, this interaction remained much calmer and more positive, and Johnny complied after 3 instructions. This is essential because we know that if something didn’t work on the 1st or 2nd time, it is unlikely to work on the 5th time. The repetition of the exact same instruction is not likely to work better the 5th time than the 1st time. The student may eventually comply, but more often than not it is due to increasing intensity in the instruction rather than the virtue of hearing the instruction again. And what we’ve inadvertently taught the student is that we don’t really mean our instructions until the 5th time we’ve said them or when we are fully yelling the whole statement.
The idea of using a “prompting strategy” also implies that we shift our level of assistance as performance changes. When performance is low, there is a high level of assistance. As performance increases, assistance decreases. When using errorless teaching, you begin with MORE assistance and fade it out over time. This is sometimes a bit of a “dance,” as you might think a student is ready for you to fade your assistance and they aren’t quite ready. That’s OK, it just means you have to increase your assistance and go a little more slowly the next time your remove the assistance. Here’s an example of what that might look like:
“Katie, you need to do the math worksheet and we only have 10 minutes.” (Katie engages in off task behaviors). The teacher stands right next to Katie, taps the paper, and says, “The worksheet, Katie.” (Katie begins working & completes 2 problems). The teacher moves 1 step away from Katie but keeps her attention focused on her. (Katie continues working and completes another 2 problems). The teacher walks to the next group of students and provides assistance to them as a group. (Katie begins engaging in off task behavior). The teacher returns to Katie’s desk group and gives “the look” to her paper. (Katie resumes her work). The teacher helps another student at Katie’s group but doesn’t walk away. (Katie continues working). The teacher leans to the group next to her but doesn’t walk away. (Katie continues working).
Katie was struggling to be on task, but didn’t really need help with the work itself. The teacher was able to use proximity and subtle gestures to get Katie on task, but it was clear that walking too far away led to off task behavior. After the teacher returned and got her on task, she walked away more slowly to ensure that Katie stayed on task. This represents prompt fading—or how we take out that added assistance.
The last big question is a BIG one, but I’ll try to be brief in answering it: How does all this added assistance INCREASE independence?! The simple answer is that success begets independence. There are four main ways this happens: 1) assistance minimizes errors and, thus, learning errors, 2) success increases contact with reinforcers, 3) learning to do things correctly increases future motivation, & 4) planned responses for noncompliance increases the consistency of expectations. Without the added assistance, we saw that Johnny was never successful in following the instruction to put his homework in the correct box. It is really hard to stay motivated to follow instructions and try to do difficult tasks if you are never successful and you never contact the reinforcers for doing things well. Once additional assistance is added, we see both of the students succeed with the tasks they are given. If they contact reinforcers for that success, they are far more likely to do those tasks again than if they failed.
I feel like I could write for days on prompting, but the big take home of all of it is this: when something doesn’t work, we need to try something different. If student don’t respond to verbal instructions the first time, they aren’t likely to respond to the same instruction the next 3 times they are given…shifting your behavior helps the students succeed and you to maintain positive interactions with the students.
We truly hope that you all have found this series valuable, and we welcome thoughts, questions, and comments. Please also feel free to share other topics you’d like to see us tackle in the future.